2014: 75th Year of Pittsburgh's Buhl Planetarium Historic Zeiss II Planetarium Projector at Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science.

History of Radio Station
WLCR-AM Carrier Current
Lewisburg/White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia U.S.A.
and The Radio Group

Radio Studio of WLCR-AM Carrier Current
Radio Studio of WLCR-AM Carrier Current
Modern radio studio, in the rear of the Woodcraft Building, was the home of WLCR-AM Carrier Current
for the Summers of 1973 through 1978. This photograph, which shows Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca
campers (members of The Radio Group) operating the radio station during one of the camp
activity periods, was taken in July of 1974. In the foreground can be seen 45-rpm vinyl records
used on the two turntables along the rear wall. Commercial eight-track tapes (not the similar "carts"
used at commercial radio stations of this era) can also be seen above the two eight-track
tape decks (below the analog wall clock). Radio station founder Kent C. Hoffman is
seated, in this photograph, at the extreme left.

(Photograph: Courtesy K.C. Hoffman)

By Glenn A. Walsh

Electronic Mail: < wlcr@planetarium.cc >
Internet Address of this Web Site:
< http://johnbrashear.tripod.com/wlcr.html >
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News Regarding WLCR-AM Carrier Current and Radio Broadcasting

This Internet web site briefly documents the history of a small, but fairly unique educational radio station, which operated in southeastern West Virginia U.S.A. during the Summer months in the 1960s and 1970s. WLCR-AM Carrier Current was a radio station operated at a Summer camp for boys and girls called Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca located between Lewisburg and White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia.

Actually, by 1967, the radio station was operated using the call letters, WCDW, while the call-sign, WNEY, was used from 1968 through 1970. In 1971, WLCR-AM Carrier Current was the station identification used to signify a special form of low-power broadcasting: by carrier-current over the electrical wiring of the Camp.

Radio instruction at Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca dates back to, at least, the 1950s, when Mr. Bennett taught campers how to build crystal radio receiving sets. Frank Adams, a camper in the 1950s, also remembers Mr. Bennett helping the campers to string an antenna in the trees and provided an insulator to keep from grounding the free end. Apparently, no active radio station operated in the 1950s.

The author was employed with Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca, Incorporated (which operated Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca from 1972-1977), as a Camp Counselor and as General Manager of the Camp's radio station, WLCR-AM Carrier Current, during the Summers of 1972 through 1977. The author was also a camper at Camp Shaw-Mi-Del- Eca, as well as a staff member of the Camp radio station, during the Summers of 1967 through 1971. During the years 1968 through 1971, the author served as the radio station's News Director; the author broadcast live newscasts several times each day.

The Camp radio station and The Radio Group--the name given to the campers involved with the radio station--started in the 1960s. By the Summer of 1964, radio broadcasts originating at Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca were transmitted throughout the Camp. Apparently, these broadcasts were strong enough to be heard in Lewisburg (3 miles away) and White Sulphur Springs (6 miles away). However, for such a range, this was much too powerful for an unlicensed radio station, as the Camp radio station never acquired an official government license from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). By the Summer of 1966, the radio station was temporarily off the air, until the transmission power was lowered to meet Federal Communications Commission regulations. The Camp radio station returned to the air in the Summer of 1967.

When the author became the Radio Counselor in charge of the Camp radio station in the Summer of 1972, the radio station sign-on and sign-off announcements included a postal address where listeners could write if they heard the broadcast beyond the confines of Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca. From 1972 through 1977 (the years Mr. Walsh was Radio Counselor), the radio station received no reception reports from outside of Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca.

Radio station WCDW(CDW was an abbreviation for the village immediately outside of the Camp entrance, Caldwell, West Virginia) was operating as the Camp radio station, from an open-air(insect screens were the only thing which separated the radio station from the noise of the rest of the Camp!) studio in the front portion of the second floor of the Woodcraft Building(which only had two floors).

The broadcasting of WCDW had been initiated by General Manager and Camp Counselor Kent C. Hoffman from Baltimore. WCDW broadcast all day long, but did sign-off late in the evening, when all of the campers had gone to bed. Tape recordings were broadcast during the Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca scheduled meal times(breakfast, lunch, and dinner), when all of the campers and counselors were eating in the Dining Hall. WCDW broadcast national news and features from the NBC Radio Network; this included the popular weekend network program "Monitor."

WCDW broadcast on the AM radio frequency of 830 KiloHertz(i.e. kilocycles per second). In order to comply with Federal Communications Commission(FCC) rules and regulations regarding low power broadcasting, WCDW broadcast with no more than 100 milliwatts (one-tenth of a watt). A small repeater transmitter (broadcast on 1250 KiloHertz], with even less power, was located at the other end of the Camp, on an upper shelf in a closet of one of the cabins used by the Warriors(the youngest group of campers), to augment reception in that part of the Camp.

During the years 1968 through 1970, Mr. Hoffman served in the United States Navy and could not work at Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca during those Summers. Thomas McEldowney served as radio station General Manager during those Summers. Mr. McEldowney changed the station's call-sign to WNEY(the last four letters of his surname), and the station broadcast on 1250 KiloHertz.

After his Naval service, Mr. Hoffman returned as radio station General Manager in the Summer of 1971. The call-sign was again changed to WLCR(LCR was abbreviation for Lewisburg-Camp-Radio), and the station became an AM Carrier Current radio station operating on 640 KiloHertz. WLCR-AM Carrier Current broadcast news and features from the CBS Radio Network. In this new operation, the radio station did not broadcast during Camp scheduled meals; the radio station signed-off the air before the meal and resumed broadcasting after the meal.

In a Carrier Current broadcast, another form of low power broadcasting, radio signals are sent through the electrical transmission lines of a building or series of buildings on a campus. Any radio receiver within three hundred feet(in theory) of an electrical line, in or outside of a building, should be able to receive the radio station. However, a radio transmission can not pass beyond an electrical transformer. Many college campuses use Carrier Current radio stations to provide students with hands-on radio experience, without the need to obtain an official radio license. For many years, the University of Pittsburgh broadcast an AM Carrier Current radio station, they called WPGH (PGH is the standard abbreviation for Pittsburgh, also used by FCC licensed television station WPGH-TV 53, Pittsburgh's Fox Network affiliate), prior to receiving a Federal Communications Commission license for an educational FM radio station, WPTS-FM, in 1984. And, even earlier beginning in 1949, the Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University) operated an AM Carrier Current radio station they called WRCT (Radio Carnegie Tech), until WRCT received a FCC FM radio license for 88.3 MegaHertz in 1974.

WPTS-FM claims to be the last low-wattage station(today, it transmits 17 watts of power) licensed by the Federal Communications Commission(FCC); it began broadcasting on 1984 August 26. Interestingly, it broadcasts on 92.1 MegaHertz, just outside of the 88 to 92 MegaHertz segment(FCC FM educational allocations run from 88.1 to 91.9 MegaHertz) of the FM Band(88-108 MegaHertz) specifically designated for educational, non-commercial FM radio stations by the FCC. It seems that this radio band segment, in the Pittsburgh market, was already filled to capacity: WQED-FM (operated along with WQED-TV 13 and WQEX-TV 16 ), WDUQ-FM (Duquesne University--National Public Radio affiliate), WRCT-FM (Carnegie-Mellon University), and WYEP-FM (independent).

At the time the University of Pittsburgh decided to apply for an FM educational radio station license, WYEP-FM had operated for several years as the unofficial campus station. Although it had no official connection to the University of Pittsburgh, the University did allow WYEP-FM to place its radio transmitter at the top of the University's 42-story Cathedral of Learning office and classroom building(tallest academic building in the Western Hemisphere), to maximize transmission coverage. At that time, WYEP-FM had studios in the South Oakland section of Pittsburgh(today, the studios of WYEP-FM are located on Pittsburgh's South Side), only a few blocks from the University of Pittsburgh campus. Consequently, many Pitt students volunteered their time operating WYEP-FM, as well as WPGH(AM Carrier Current).

When the University of Pittsburgh did decide to apply for an FM educational radio station license, University officials knew that there was no room for the station in the FCC's FM educational band. Carnegie Mellon University did consider shutting-down WRCT-FM, their small FM educational radio station, to allow the University of Pittsburgh to use their FM educational radio frequency. However, in the end, WRCT-FM remained on the air, and WPTS-FM obtained an FM educational radio transmitting license just outside of the FCC FM educational radio band(which is not unheard of--actually, a few AM educational radio stations also exist, but with no specific educational segment of the AM radio band).

All of the variations of the AM radio station of Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca broadcast in a low- power mode, in compliance with the Federal Communications Commission's(FCC) Rules and Regulations Part 15. During the 1970s, Mr. Hoffman conducted some brief experiments into FM Stereo broadcasting, via Carrier Current, of the WLCR programming; however, these broadcasts were not continued since few campers had FM radios, during this era. The Camp radio station never required a radio station license from the FCC, due to the low power and Carrier Current operations. Click here to learn more about low power broadcasting.

In the Summer of 1972, the author, became the General Manager of WLCR-AM Carrier Current. Mr. Hoffman, then employed as a traveling inspector with the National Bureau of Standards(NBS) in Gaithersburg, Maryland, could no longer spend seven weeks each Summer at Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca. However, for the next several years, Mr. Hoffman did spend his vacation as a Camp Counselor and co-General Manager with Mr. Walsh, usually during three to four weeks of the Camp session. Mr. Walsh remained General Manager of WLCR-AM Carrier Current through the 1977 Summer season.

Hugh Bean, who as a camper had been very active with The Radio Group, obtained his Third Class Commercial Radiotelepone License with Broadcast Endorsement from the Federal Communications Commission during The Radio Group's trip to Washington in August of 1975. The following year, Mr. Bean, from Martinsburg, West Virginia, became a Camp Counselor and Assistant General Manager of WLCR-AM Carrier Current.

Steps lead to new radio studio in rear of Woodcraft Building; original studio had been on second floor, in the front of the building. Tennis courts and Dining Hall can be seen in the background. Later, a weather station shelter was mounted on edge of the fence (closest to the radio studio) bordering the tennis courts.
Steps Lead to New Radio Studio
The four steps in the foreground lead to the new (1973) radio studio of WLCR-AM
Carrier Current in the rear of the Woodcraft Building; original studio had been on the
second floor, in the front of the building. Tennis courts and Dining Hall can be seen in the
background. Later, a weather station shelter, for the official National Weather Service
weather substation, was mounted on the edge of the fence (closest to the radio studio),
which bordered the tennis courts.

(Photograph - 1974 August: Courtesy K.C. Hoffman)

In 1973, the new owner of Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca, Dr. Eugene McClung, provided a brand new studio for WLCR-AM Carrier Current in the rear of the first floor of the Woodcraft Building(which was then often referred to as the Crafts Building). The new studio was sound-proof and air conditioned--the only air conditioned facility in the entire Camp! WLCR-AM Carrier Current stayed in this location for the remainder of the existence of Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca.

Later-on in the author's tenure as radio station General Manager, the Camp constructed a small bedroom for the General Manager in the room adjacent to the new radio studio. This was primarily due to the lack of space in the Camp's cabins. This small, new bedroom was NOT air conditioned!

The equipment of the radio station consisted of an RC-6A radio transmitter manufactured by Low Power Broadcast Company (now known as LPB Communications, Inc.), a sound mixer/control board with sliding pots, two turntables, reel-to-reel tape recorder, cassette tape recorder, two eight-track tape decks, Hallicrafters(World War II vintage) multiband radio receiver, and Hammerlund multiband radio receiver. To prevent dust and humidity from hurting the equipment, a blanket or large sheet of plastic was placed over all of the equipment, each night after sign-off--even after the new studio was installed. A home-made electronic security system was installed for the new studio; however, after some false alarms, it was no longer used.

In the mid-1970s, the author obtained surplus government weather equipment, and a weather station shelter, which was installed just outside of the radio studio, on the end of the fence of the tennis courts. The radio station became an official Weather Substation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS). Weather Substations in West Virginia were administratively supervised by the Weather Service Forecast Office (WSFO) in Pittsburgh (originally located on the 23rd floor of the 25-floor Federal Building, later moved to its own custom-built building in suburban Moon Township). The Pittsburgh Forecast Office also considered installing, on Camp property, a "white-water" river gauge to monitor the level of the Greenbrier River. However, this was not possible since there would be no person to monitor the equipment during the months the Camp was closed.

Prior to installation of the Weather Substation, two thermometers provided the temperature for broadcast; one thermometer was in the east studio window, while the other was in one of the south studio windows. The radio station on-air staff would use the temperature of whichever thermometer was in the shade, at that time. Usually the sky conditions and the current time [the radio station's analog, quartz-crystal clock was corrected each day with time transmitted by the National Bureau of Standards' (now known as the National Institute of Standards and Technology) short-wave radio station, WWV] were also broadcast with the temperature; these time--temperature--sky condition reports were announced frequently on WLCR-AM Carrier Current.

The campers were taught all the aspects necessary for operation of a radio program. Campers interested in the more technical details were provided instruction that could result in their qualification for a Federal Communications Commission(FCC) radio license, particularly the Third Class Commercial Radiotelephone License with Broadcast Endorsement. Campers were taught how to fill-out radio station Program, Engineering, and Maintenace Logs, as required by the FCC. They were also instructed the proper way to handle equipment and recording materials--particularly the vinyl 33 revolutions per minute(rpm) and 45 rpm(and occasional 78 rpm) records prevelant in that day(NEVER touch the actual record surface, as this could result in more dirt and dust getting into the record's recorded grooves).

Overmodulation, when the audio from radio reception begins to get garbled, is forbidden for radio broadcasting by the FCC. The campers were taught to watch the Volume Unit(VU) Meters closely, to ensure there is no overmodulation and high quality audio is transmitted on WLCR-AM Carrier Current. The students were also taught to maintain the efficiency of the broadcast by minimizing "dead-air": time when no sound goes over the radio station's carrier wave signal. And, the campers were taught to follow the rules and regulations of the FCC, regarding station identification announcements as well as sign-on and sign-off announcements.

Often, the radio station General Manager supervised campers as they qualified for merit badges for either the Boy Scouts or the Girl Scouts, in Science-related fields.

Mr. Hoffman and the author taught a course for campers interested in obtaining a FCC Third Class Commercial Radiotelephone License with Broadcast Endorsement. By acquiring this radio license, campers could operate in any commercial radio station, on the AM or FM radio bands, in the nation; this particular radio license was not valid for operating amateur("ham") radio stations. Over the years, several campers successfully passed the FCC examination and received their Third Class "ticket," after completing the Camp's radio course. These included Glenn A. Walsh (in Pittsburgh in March of 1972), Bill Pugh (in Cincinnati in the Spring of 1975), and five campers who took the FCC test at the FCC office, during a field trip to Washington, D.C. shortly after the Camp season ended in August of 1975: Hugh Bean, Ted W. Bernstein Martin E. Frank, David Froehlich, and Albert (Beau) Holiday.

The campers loved to broadcast their programs, primarily Rock-and-Roll musical programs. Considering that most rural West Virginia radio stations played Country music, most campers listened to the Camp radio station. A request program was initiated on Saturday evenings, which had a good response from the campers. However, the station's official format was not Top-40; WLCR-AM Carrier Current broadcast a Top-100 format(from Billboard magazine's list of the top 100 songs of the week).

Typically, the on-air staff consisted of an announcer, who would also be in charge of the sound mixer/control board, and an engineer, who would prepare the recordings for broadcast. Sometimes there were three and four on-air staff at one time; some of the better-trained operators could handle the entire broadcast alone.

Being an educational, non-commercial station, WLCR-AM Carrier Current broadcast no commercial advertisements. However, the station did broadcast Public Service Announcements(PSAs) both live and recorded(mostly professional recordings sent to the station for no charge).

Often, when a camper was broadcasting, he or she would have to visit the rest room; he would need for someone else to attend to his duties while he was gone. In order to prevent the words "rest room," "toilet," or "bathroom" from inadvertantly being broadcast on the air, staff members were instructed to announce a "Code Green" if they needed to use the rest room; then everyone would know what needed to be covered during the person's absence.

Historic "War of the Worlds" Radio Broadcast Comes to WLCR

Twice each Summer (once during each three- and one-half-week session) WLCR-AM Carrier Current played a rebroadcast of the famous 1938 radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds. This hour-long program, first broadcast by Orson Welles on his CBS Radio Network program, "The Mercury Theater on the Air," describes a fictitious invasion of the Earth by beings from the Planet Mars.

The format Mr. Welles used, to adapt the classic H.G. Wells science fiction novel to radio, included fictitious radio news bulletins--sounding similar to the radio news bulletins people were used to hearing for actual news events. Of course in this time period, pressures were building towards war in Europe (only twenty years after the First World War). "The Mercury Theater on the Air" broadcast at 8:00 p.m. EST on Sunday, October 30--the night before Halloween! And, considering that alot of people missed the very beginning of the program, which included a disclaimer clearly stating that the program was a fictional account, many people throughout the country became convinced that Martians really were invading the tiny hamlet of Grover's Mill, New Jerey and making their way to New York City!

Of course, most campers had heard about this inadvertant historical broadcast, but had never actually heard the broadcast itself, although had seen a television movie about the broadcast. They enjoyed hearing the program, broadcast during the daily "Quiet Hour," a time just after Lunch when campers were expected to stay in their bunks to rest, or play quiet games with their cabin mates.

During the 1976 July landing of the two Viking space probes on the surface of the Planet Mars, WLCR-AM Carrier Current carried news reports of this event directly from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A couple of these NASA news reports were aired during the intermission of the broadcast of The War of the Worlds.

More Information on the Historic 1938 Radio Broadcast of The War of the Worlds:

Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Information on Original H. G. Wells Novel

Walsh, Glenn A. "'War of the Worlds' Panic Broadcast: 75th Anniversary." Blog Post.
SpaceWatchtower 2013 Oct. 29.

WESA-FM 90.5 Pittsburgh 75th Anniversary Remake of "War of the Worlds" Radio Broadcast Set in Pittsburgh

Original newspaper coverage of 1938 radio broadcast -- New York City
Dixon, George. "Fake War on Radio Spreads Panic Over U.S."
Daily News, New York 1938 Oct. 31.

Original newspaper coverage of 1938 radio broadcast -- Pittsburgh
"Radio Play's 'War Scare' Scene Causes Nation-Wide Hysteria."
The Pittsburgh Press / United Press Wire Service 1938 Oct. 31: 1.

"War of the Worlds
Live at the FitzGerald Theater."

RadioLab Radio Program 2008 March 24.
Web page and radio program (public radio program from WNYC) documentary,
regarding the 1938 War of the Worlds radio broadcast and similar panic broadcasts after 1938.

Other "War of the Worlds" News Stories ---

Severo, Richard. "Mitch Miller, Maestro of the Singalong, Dies at 99." Obituary.
The New York Times 2010 Aug. 2.
"He later got a job with the CBS Symphony, performing with it during the notorious Orson Welles “War of the Worlds” radio broadcast in 1938."

Swan, Lisa. "'War of the Worlds' terrified the nation 70 years ago."
Daily News, New York 2008 Oct. 30.

WLCR-AM Carrier Current also broadcast the weekly, five-minute radio feature program produced by NASA, "The Space Story," which was narrated by the then-future weather broadcaster of the NBC-TV "Today Show," Willard Scott. (Also, learn about Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca's sole use of television, to allow campers to see the historic first landing of men on the Moon by clicking here.)

In addition to network news, and features from network or transcribed sources, the Camp radio station did broadcast local Camp news daily. From time-to-time, the campers also broadcast their own commentaries, often regarding Camp controversies. Religious programs, from transcribed recordings mailed to the radio station, were also broadcast weekly.

The Radio Group conducted a radio experiment during the total solar eclipse of 1972 July 10, which was viewed as a partial solar eclipse in West Virginia. This eclipse experiment had nothing to do with the radio station. Two multiband radios used in the radio studio for on-air monitors, the World War II-vintage Hallicrafters receiver and the Hammerlund radio, were used to monitor the radio reception of distant radio signals. The question was whether the solar eclipse would affect the Earth's ionosphere to improve distant radio reception, as happens at night when there is a lack of solar radiation hitting the ionosphere. The results were positive; there did seem to be an increase in the receptivity of distant radio signals (as displayed by the signal strength meter on the Hammerlund receiver, in addition to audio quality).

With the assistance of the Amateur Transmitters' Association of Western Pennsylvania (amateur radio club), this experiment was repeated during the total solar eclipse of 1991 July 11, which was viewed as a partial solar eclipse at The Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science in Pittsburgh ( news article from the 1991 July 11 issue of the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review). This time, the results were inconclusive. This probably was due to the fact that, during the 1991 solar eclipse, not as much of the Sun was obscured (as viewed from Pittsburgh) as was covered by the Moon (as viewed in West Virginia) in 1972. In 1972, the total solar eclipse had been viewed in Nova Scotia, while the total solar eclipse in 1991 was viewed in Mexico City; Mexico City is much further away from Pittsburgh, than Nova Scotia is from West Virginia.

Other Solar Eclipses *** Eclipse of the Sun / Solar Eclipse: Tips For Safe Viewing

One interesting anecdote: About a month prior to the 1972 solar eclipse, popular Rock-and-Roll singer Carly Simon mentioned this particular solar eclipse (which would be a total solar eclipse in Nova Scotia) in the lyrics of her popular song, You're So Vain: "Then you flew your Lear jet up to Nova Scotia to see the total eclipse of the sun". Of course, since WLCR-AM Carrier Current played all of the current hit single records (at that time, usually on 45 rpm vinyl records), the radio station often played this Carly Simon song during the Summer of 1972 (You're So Vain was ranked number 279 in 1960s/1970s hits, during the "Last Blast Of Summer 500 Countdown" on WWSW-FM in Pittsburgh on 2012 September 2; biography of Carly Simon; more info on song).

Radio Group members tour the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia
Field Trip to Green Bank
Pictured are members of The Radio Group touring the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia,
located within the Federally-designated National Radio Quiet Zone, in July of 1974; Radio Group founder Kent C. Hoffman is
the fourth person from the left. This was one of several Radio Group field trips; others
included tours of WSLW-AM radio station in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia
and the Voice of America in Washington, D.C.

Other Green Bank Field Trip Photographs & Information
(Photograph: Courtesy K.C. Hoffman)

Members of The Radio Group took several field trips to tour places such as the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia and WSLW-AM Radio in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia (both facilities within the National Radio Quiet Zone, as was WLCR-AM Carrier Current). In August of 1975, shortly after the Camp season ended, Mr. Hoffman and Mr. Walsh took the five campers mentioned earlier, who had been studying to take the FCC radio exam, to the FCC office in Washington, D.C. for the examination; all five campers passed the test and earned the radio license. During the visit to Washington, these campers also toured the studios of the Voice of America (VOA), the official short-wave radio station of the United States, which presents news and information about American life to people living in other countries. Click here for more field trip photographs.

Other than the Camp radio station, there were few other radio stations available for the campers to listen to. This is particularly true considering that most of the young people of that time wanted to listen to Rock-and-Roll music, while most rural West Virginia radio stations concentrated on Country music. Country music was also the dominant radio station format of the few radio stations that could be received from larger towns such as Beckley, West Virginia and Roanoke, Virginia. The campers were able to present their own programs on the Camp radio statioin, with their preferred choice of music; hence, most campers did listen to the WLCR-AM Carrier Current. Of course after sunset, the campers could listen to AM radio stations from many of the cities in the eastern and mid-western sections of the United States.

Until the 1970s, Greenbrier County only had one other radio station: WRON (AM 1400--Mutual Radio affiliate) in Ronceverte (studio was located in Fairlea, the home of the West Virginia State Fair). In 1971, WSLW (AM 1310--ABC Radio affiliate) started broadcasting from White Sulphur Springs(with a satellite studio in Lewisburg). Unlike today, no FM radio stations or television stations were permitted in this part of West Virginia; today, there is at least one FM radio station in Greenbrier County.

Such limited radio transmissions (and no television transmissions) were due to the National Radio Quiet Zone (NRQZ). Established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) on 1958 November 19, the National Radio Quiet Zone was implemented to take advantage of a natural phenomenon, due to the unique topography of the Allegheny Mountains in West Virginia and Virginia, which screens-out most incoming radio signals. This natural phenomenon, along with new Federal regulations of the NRQZ, provided for important radio research of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia (visited by members of the Radio Group) and the Navy Information Operations Command in Sugar Grove, West Virginia.

The NRQZ is approximately 13,000 square miles in size and includes much of the eastern portion of the State of West Virginia and some of the western portion of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca, the location of WLCR-AM Carrier Current, was just inside of and near the southwest corner of the NRQZ. As a carrier-current radio station, the radio signal did not appreciably leave the Camp property; so, WLCR-AM Carrier Current never interfered with the Green Bank or Sugar Grove facilities.

By coincidence, November 19 is also the anniversary of another facility benefiting astronomical education and research. On that date in 1941, well-known Astronomer Harlow Shapley, then Director of the Harvard College Observatory, gave the keynote address at the dedication of the 10-inch Siderostat-type Refractor Telescope of "The People's Observatory," at Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science.

National Radio Quiet Zone (NRQZ):

Official Web Site *** Wikipedia Article

Walsh, Glenn A. "Radio Astronomy in Australia Radio Quiet Zone." Blog Post.
SpaceWatchtower 2012 Dec. 30.

Benningfield, Damond. "National Radio Quiet Zone." Radio Program Script.
StarDate Radio Program 2008 Nov. 18.

Thompson, John M. "Dwarfed by the Heavens in W.Va. Hear the Sounds Of the Universe At Observatory."
The Washington Post 2008 Nov. 19: C-2.

Geirland, John. "The Quiet Zone - Cell phones, pagers, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth - the wireless revolution is everywhere. Except here."
Wired Magazine 2004 February.

(Learn about Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca's sole use of television, to allow campers to see the historic first landing of men on the Moon by clicking here. Also, learn about the short time The Radio Group/WLCR-AM Carrier Current did own a color television by clicking here.) Although not a formal activity, The Radio Group also ran a program in Model Rocketry at Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca, for campers interested in this hobby. Andy Best, one of the campers who was very active with the broadcasting of WLCR-AM Carrier Current, coordinated several model rocket launches for a camp-wide audience.

Photo of seeking buried treasure using metal detectors.
Campers Seeking Buried Treasure With Metal Detectors !
One informal activity, sponsored by The Radio Group, allowed campers
to search for buried treasure, using portable metal detectors.
(Photograph - 1974 August: Courtesy K.C. Hoffman)

Another informal activity of The Radio Group was searching for buried objects using portable metal detectors. And, one year a small shed next to the Woodcraft Building was converted into an amateur photo lab, to allow campers to develop their own photographs.

A few alumni of The Radio Group continued their interest in Radio and Science. WLCR-AM Carrier Current Founder Kent C. Hoffman now runs an electronics firm in suburban Baltimore(Hunt Valley), Murray Electronics, which designs, develops and manufactures medical devices for the treatment of arthritis and related musculoskeletal diseases, including the innovative product, the Bionicare Stimulator System (invented by Mr. Hoffman, who is an electrical engineer and physicist). Since 1989, Mr. Hoffman has been the Secretary-Treasurer of The Society for Physical Regulation in Biology and Medicine; he served as the Local Arrangements Chair in 1988.

A camper in The Radio Group, Jim Wiltman (Mr. Wiltman's contribution to the Great Pittsburgh Friendship Quilt, produced at Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science), continued his interest in broadcasting, although not as a career. During the 1980s, Mr. Wiltman was employed as a stock broker for the brokerage firm, Parker-Hunter, in Downtown Pittsburgh. One of his daily duties was to broadcast hourly(at twenty minutes after the hour, while the stock exhanges were operating) stock market quotes and information on Pittsburgh's all-news radio station, KQV-AM 1410.

The author served as Astronomical Observatory Coordinator and Planetarium Lecturer at The Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science in Pittsburgh, during the 1980s and early 1990s.

***

WLCR-AM Carrier Current
Radio Station Announcements

History of
Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca
Lewisburg/White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia

Walsh, Glenn A. "The Historic Mission of Apollo 11
Man Walks on the Moon for the First Time
A Personal Remembrance From 40 Years Ago."

History of Buhl Planetarium Web Site 2009 July 20.
< http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/bio/Apolloremembrance.htm >.
Remembrance of watching first manned Moon landing at Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca.

Facebook Page: Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca Alumni

History of the Amateur Transmitters' Association of Western Pennsylvania,
which was the primary Pittsburgh-area amateur ("ham") radio club from 1926 through the late 1990s,
and which met for many years at Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science.

The Saturday Light Brigade,
Weekly family/children's radio program, including periodic radio workshops for children,
aired on educational radio station WRCT-FM 88.3 of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh,
with studios in the Lower Level of Pittsburgh's historic Buhl Planetarium building.

National Radio Club
World's oldest and largest club of medium wave (AM Band) distance radio listeners; formed in 1933.

National Radio Day (August 20)

Levy, David H. "A 1967 Meteor Watch."
Sky and Telescope Magazine On-Line 2009 May 22.
Astronomy program at a boy’s summer camp near Honesdale, Pennsylvania.


More Photos and Information About the Radio Program at
Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca

Photographs of New (1973) Radio Studio: Photo 1 *** Photo 2
(Courtesy: K.C. Hoffman)

Photos and Information: Radio Room (from 1965 Catalog)
(Courtesy: K.C. Hoffman)

The Pow-Wow Camp Newsletter, July 1972.
Includes long paragraph (seventh of eight paragraphs) regarding Camp radio station.

(Courtesy: Steve Callaghan)

Photographs and Information Regarding Field Trips to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia:
Field Trip To Green Bank *** National Radio Quiet Zone (including Green Bank and WLCR-AM Carrier Current)
Photographs:
Page from 1965 Catalog *** Page from 1975 Catalog, Including One Photo of Green Bank Field Trip
Image 3 *** Image 4
(Courtesy: K.C. Hoffman)

Cover of 1975 Camp Catalog, Including One Photo of Rocketry Program, Operated by The Radio Group
(Courtesy: K.C. Hoffman)


News Regarding WLCR-AM Carrier Current and Radio Broadcasting

A Note About News Articles in This Archive

Also see broadcasting news at web page regarding WQEX-TV 16

Also see list of Science-related radio and television programs with relevant links.

Sciullo, Maria. "Format change at WJAS-AM leaves longtime listeners bereft."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2014 Sept. 14.
Pittsburgh's historic WJAS-AM changed format from oldies / classic songs to news / talk, after an ownership change.

Nowlin, Rick. "WYZR swings on as a new voice of jazz."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2014 Feb. 13.
Studios located at Donaldson's Crossroads in Peters Township, to comply with FCC regulation that studios be within 25 miles of city of license, which is Bethany WV.

McCoy, Adrian. "WYZR applies for signal increase."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2014 Jan. 30.
New jazz public radio station, with the transmitter in Bethany WV, seeks better signal in Pittsburgh area.

McCoy, Adrian. "Radio stations offer holiday specials."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2013 Dec. 23.
Reports holiday specials on all-news KQV-AM and the city's three major public radio stations: WESA-FM, WYEP-FM, and WQED-FM.

McCoy, Adrian. "TV Notes: KDKA-AM trims staff, newscasts."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2013 Dec. 19.
Also, "The Dr. Knowledge Show," broadcast on KDKA-AM overnight on weekends, will end after the December 29 broadcast.

Naylor, Brian. "FCC Proposes AM Radio Changes To Give The Band A Boost." Program: "All Things Considered."
National Public Radio 2013 Dec. 3.

Walsh, Glenn A. "'War of the Worlds' Panic Broadcast: 75th Anniversary." Blog Post.
SpaceWatchtower 2013 Oct. 29.

McCoy, Adrian. "Jazz station set to launch: 88.1 WYZR-FM."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2013 Aug. 30.

Walsh, Glenn A. "Astronomers Puzzled by Powerful Radio Bursts." Blog Post.
SpaceWatchtower 2013 July 5.

* "Pittsburgh area gets new radio station."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2013 July 4.
Former Braddock station WLFP-AM, which was the flagship station for the Lifetime Radio Network, has now been transformed to a music format using the call-sign WZUM-AM, which had previously been used for decades by a popular-music Carnegie, Pennsylvania radio station, which lost its license a couple years ago for being off-the-air too long.
* Percha, Julie. "Year after it went dark, WZUM loses license."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 March 25.
Loss of license for sole radio station licensed to Carnegie, Pennsylvania.

Walsh, Glenn A. "Former Buhl Planetarium Curator Jim Mullaney To Be On National Radio." Blog Post.
SpaceWatchtower 2013 June 26.

"FCC Update: Low Power Window Announced at Last!" News Release.
Prometheus Radio Project 2013 June 19.

Menendez, Jenn. "Report: West Virginia Radio files suit." Blog Post.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2013 June 19.

McCoy, Adrian. "Jazz radio station moves forward."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2013 June 13.
Pittsburgh Public Media is the new owner of the WVBC-FM (88.1) signal formerly owned by Bethany College in West Virginia.
Pittsburgh Public Media is the nonprofit that operates the online Pittsburgh Jazz Channel (www.pghjazzchannel.org).
The Federal Communications Commission approved the sale in March, and Pittsburgh Public Media closed on the sale May 31. The new call letters will be WYZR-FM, and the studios will be in McMurray.

Fontaine, Tom. "Ex-mayoral aide takes to the airwaves."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review On-Line 2013 June 8.

Zlatos, Bill. "Girl Scout camping chances in decline."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2013 June 5.
Girl Scout Camp Ann Bailey in Greenbrier County, West Virginia (which was located just north of Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca) was shut-down in the early 1970s, to make-way for construction of Interstate 64 and the Interstate bridge crossing the Greenbrier River.

Um, Noel. "Radio stations at CMU and Pitt gain national recognition."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2013 May 26.

Olson, Thomas. "Tribune-Review owner to sell stake in KQV-AM 1410."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review On-Line 2013 May 14.
Richard Mellon Scaife to sell majority stake in Pittsburgh's All-News Radio Station.

Sciullo, Maria. "Scaife to sell his interest in KQV."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2013 May 14.
New company owned by Dickey family, 22 MIN LLC, to buy majority ownership shares of Pittsburgh's All-News Radio Station.

Kelvington, Lee and John Cuthbert. "The Next Page: From mill to microphone ... 'It's Wheeling Steel'."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2013 March 24.
The live weekly program debuted at 1 p.m. Nov. 8, 1936, from the WWVA-AM studios in Wheeling. It also was broadcast by WPAY-AM in Portsmouth, Ohio.
In its second season, "It's Wheeling Steel" joined the 17-station Mutual Broadcasting System. In January 1938, the program was heard from Maine to California for the first time.
After two more seasons with the Mutual Broadcasting System, "It's Wheeling Steel" jumped to the larger NBC Blue Network in October 1941. The show's weekly audience swelled into the millions. It aired on dozens of stations by 1944. NBC had so much respect for the program that network executives and their wives attended a Christmas party that cast members held at Wheeling Country Club on Dec. 6, 1941.
That was a historic day for the program. The next day would be historic for the world. The Dec. 7, 1941, show was performed at Capitol Theater but never heard on the network. NBC preempted it to cover the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
The 326th broadcast -- on June 18, 1944 -- was the last. The program was not canceled by NBC but halted by Wheeling Steel when Grimes, the show's creator, fell severely ill.

McCoy, Adrian. "Time to celebrate at 'Saturday Light Brigade'
"The radio show marks its 35th anniversary on Saturday's broadcast."

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2013 March 15.

McCoy, Adrian. "Krenn's newest gig: a podcast."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2013 March 13.
Comedian and former WDVE-FM morning drive-time radio host Jim Krenn worked as a Floor Aide at Pittsburgh's original
Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science in the 1970s.

McCoy, Adrian. "Pittsburgh Public Media clear to buy radio frequency for jazz station."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2013 March 5.

Sciullo, Maria. "Radio/TV Notes: KDKA-AM trying out hosts on Saturday shifts." Column: Radio/TV Notes.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2013 March 5.

McCoy, Adrian. "Web radio station streaming programs geared to children."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2013 Feb. 8.
The channel, at www.iqkidsradio.org, is a collaboration between WQED Multimedia and SLB Radio Productions Inc., which produces the weekly "Saturday Light Brigade" radio show.
Listeners will find iQ Kids radio online at www.iqkidsradio.org, and mobile listeners can use the free Tunein Radio app for Android and iOS smartphones.

McCoy, Adrian. "Jazz may return to local airwaves."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 Nov. 9.

Hevesi, Dennis. "Obituary: Tedi Thurman / Radio show weather girl with sultry voice." Obituary.
The New York Times/Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 Sept. 22.
Served as "Miss Monitor" on NBC Radio "Monitor" program, which was carried on The Radio Group's WCDW radio station, at Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca near White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, in the Summer of 1967.

"Bill Rehkopf to return to KDKA-AM Radio."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 Aug. 31.
Mr. Rehkopf, a Murrysville native, anchored the morning news at KDKA for five years, He left in January for all-news WNEW-FM in Washington, D.C.

Schudel, Matt. "Obituary: R. Peter Straus / Media executive who ran Voice of America." Obituary.
The Washington Post/Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 Aug. 12.

Sostek, Anya and Maria Sciullo. "Essential Public Radio changes its name."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 Aug. 10.

Sostek, Anya. "WESA shakes up programming lineup."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2012 Aug. 9.

Cato, Jason. "Pittsburgh NPR news station changing names."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2012 Aug 9.

McCoy, Adrian. "Third Rock Radio show broadcasts from space."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 Aug. 3.

Walsh, Glenn A. "New Radio Telescope to Look at Big Bang." Blog Posting.
SpaceWatchtower 2012 Aug. 2.

Walsh, Glenn A. "Smart Grid, Electric Vehicles, Telemedicine: Student Presentations on Capitol Hill Aug. 1." Blog Posting.
SpaceWatchtower 2012 Aug. 1.

McCoy, Adrian. "Online radio station for children to start streaming next year."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 July 4.

Grupp, John. "CBS Radio: KDKA-FM format to remain intact."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2012 June 21.
The format at KDKA-FM (93.7) will not be affected by the new CBS Sports Radio network, a 24-hour, seven-days-a-week lineup of national programming.
While some major markets such as Philadelphia, Detroit, Baltimore and Houston will use all national content when the 24/7 all-sports talk radio lineup debuts Jan. 2, 2013, KDKA-FM has opted to use just various components of CBS Sports Radio.

Grant, Tim. ":Obituary: Ronald Morris / Driven entrepreneur and popular radio host." Obituary.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 June 9.

Michael Hasch, Michael. "Obituary: Ronald R. Morris." Obituary.
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2012 June 8.
Host of "The American Entrepreneur" radio show, which is heard in Pittsburgh on WMNY-1360 AM and WPGB-104.7 FM.

Cato, Jason. "WYEP losing its longtime commander."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review On-Line 2012 May 31.

Nelson Jones, Diana. "Obituary: Ralph Wiethorn / 'Mellifluous' voice of WWSW radio." Obituary.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 May 27.
While working at WKJF-FM 93.7, he also hosted a television show in 1954 on short-lived WKJF-TV 53, "Teens and Tunes," a local version of "American Bandstand."

Sciullo, Maria. "Radio Notes: One Book editor to speak here."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 May 1.
** Allegheny County Library Association's 10th anniversary celebration of "One Book, One Community," author Dan Gediman will be interviewed on WESA-FM 90.5.
** Former KDKA-AM programming director Marshall Adams has been named to a similar post at Cumulus Media's 106.7 WYAY-FM in Atlanta, which will become an all-news radio station later this month.

Sciullo, Maria. "Power outage knocks local radio stations off air."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2012 April 16.
Several CBS radio stations in Pittsburgh, including KDKA-FM, had intermittent programming due to a power failure.

McCoy, Adrian. "KQV news director Frank Gottlieb retires."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 March 31.

Sciullo, Maria. "KDKA radio names program director."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 March 27.

* Rutkoski, Rex. "WDVE Morning Show faces change but formula remains the same."
Valley News Dispatch Tarentum/New Kensington PA 2012 Feb. 10.
* McCoy, Adrian. "Jim Krenn out, Scott Paulsen back at WDVE."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 Jan. 20.
* "Krenn's friends set Ross benefit for animal shelter."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2012 Jan. 20.
* McCoy, Adrian. "Paulsen to rejoin WDVE-FM morning show."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2012 Jan. 19.
* Rutkoski, Rex. "Scott Paulsen, Bill Crawford joining WDVE-FM."
Valley News Dispatch, Tarentum/New Kensington PA 2012 Jan. 19.
* Fuoco, Michael A. "Krenn's disappearance from 'DVE airwaves unexplained."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Dec. 15.
** Long-time (since 1988) and popular WDVE-FM radio morning personality, Jim Krenn, was employed on the
Floor Staff of Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science
in the 1970s.

"Radio Notes: 02/10/12 - Massive Music on WRCT, 'Essential' show on WESA."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 Feb. 10.

McCoy, Adrian. "WESA-FM listenership declines 50%."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 Jan. 11.

"NASA's Online Radio Station Rocks Smartphones." News Release.
NASA 2012 Jan. 10.

Sciullo, Maria. "Rehkopf, DelSignore leaving KDKA radio."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2012 Jan. 4.
KDKA-AM radio personalities moving to Washington to be part of the news department of sister radio station WNEW-FM, the new all-news radio station.

"CBS Radio's "All News 99.1" WNEW to debut in Washington DC on Thursday, 1/19."
Radio-Info.com 2012 Jan. 3.
WNEW-FM to compete with long-time Washington all-news radio station WTOP-FM (which started as an AM all-news radio station); 35 years ago, WTOP-AM had two all-news radio competitors; WAVA-AM & FM (one of the first all-news radio stations in North America) and WRC-AM {now news/talk WWRC-AM, which was an NBC owned-and-operated station which subscribed to NBC's News and Information Service (NIS) radio network).

Walsh, Glenn A. "Hugh Bean Retires." Blog Posting.
SpaceWatchtower 2012 Jan. 4.
This blog posting regards the retirement of Hugh Bean, who served in the 1970s as a Counselor and licensed (Third Class Commercial Radiotelephone License with Broadcast Endorsement) staff member of Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca radio station WLCR-AM Carrier Current.

Morris, Ron. "Three For One - Bob Dickey" Commentary.
The American Entrepreneur 2011 Dec. 30.

"KQV to honor late GM."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Dec. 30.

"Bob Dickey, R.I.P." Editorial.
Pittsburgh Tribnue-Review 2011 Dec. 28.

"ROBERT W. DICKEY." Death Notice.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Dec. 27.

"Robert W. Dickey, Oakland." Death Notice.
Pittsburgh Tribnue-Review 2011 Dec. 26.

"Robert W. Dickey, Sr. 1926-2011." Obituary.
KQV-AM 1410 News Radio 2011 Dec. 26.

Navratil, Liz. "Obituary: Robert Dickey Sr. / KQV chief nurtured all-news format. Obituary.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Dec. 26.

Cato, Jason. "KQV patriarch Robert W. Dickey Sr. was dedicated to news." Obituary.
Pittsburgh Tribnue-Review 2011 Dec. 25.

Fuoco, Michael A. "Krenn's disappearance from 'DVE airwaves unexplained."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Dec. 15.
Long-time (since 1988) and popular WDVE-FM radio morning personality, Jim Krenn, was employed on the Floor Staff of Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science in the 1970s.

"City native to host 'Essential Pittsburgh' radio news program."
Pittsburgh Tribnue-Review 2011 Dec. 15.

McCoy, Adrian. "WESA public radio names Paul Guggenheimer midday show host."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Dec. 15.

Sciullo, Maria. "Programming director leaves KDKA radio."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Dec. 12.

"NASA Engages Public With New Custom Internet Radio Station." News Release.
NASA 2011 Dec. 12.

Sciullo, Maria. "Programming director leaves KDKA radio."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 Dec. 8.

Congiu, Sasha. "'Innovation Now' Fuels Ideas."
The Researcher News, NASA Langley Research Center 2011 Dec. 8.
New NASA radio program highlighted.
This radio program succeeds the NASA Langley Research Center Discovery Now radio program; for the web site of this new Innovation Now radio program, click here.

Bowling, Brian. "Notice of lawsuit served on man hosting live radio talk show."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 Nov. 12.

McConnell Schaarsmith, Amy. "Emergency alert test goes national."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Nov. 9.

Rotstein, Gary. "The Morning File / Fellow Americans: It's the Emergency Alert System (Don't freak!)." Column: The Morning File.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Nov. 7.

Born, Molly. "Obituary: Perry Marshall / Celebrated radio host was both talker and listener." Obituary.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Nov. 7.

Cato, Jason. "2 added to WESA board of directors."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 Nov. 1.

Stringer, David. "Eccentric UK broadcaster Jimmy Savile dies at 84."
Seattle Post-Intelligencer On-Line/AP 2011 Oct. 29.
Savile claimed have been the first DJ in the world to use two turntables — enabling continuous music to be played — inventing the techniques later embraced by modern dance music, and to have pioneered the use of record, rather than live bands, at nightclubs.

McCoy, Adrian. "Porky Chedwick ends WEDO show."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Oct. 26.
Mr. Chedwick, 93, whose long radio career started at the former WAMO, was a trailblazer in the music industry who introduced white audiences to records by black artists, and who was the first to play records by people such as Bo Diddley, Smokey Robinson and others. His signature on-air patter -- "The Daddio of the Raddio," "Your Platter Pushin' Papa," "Pork The Tork" -- have become part of radio folklore.

Norman , Tony. "NPR is no host for liberals these days." Column.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Oct. 25.

"WESA fund drive misses mark by $6,000."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review On-Line 2011 Oct. 24.

McCoy, Adrian. "WESA-FM cues up first on-air pledge drive."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Oct. 12.

Brink, Bill. "Pirates' broadcasts to move to KDKA-FM."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Oct. 12.

"Carnegie Hall shows to air on WQED-FM."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Oct. 4.
The live shows from Carnegie Hall in New York City will air at 8 p.m. on various days from Oct. 11-May 29.

McCoy, Adrian. "Essential Radio names DeAnne Hamilton president."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Sept. 30.

Cato, Jason. "Public radio hires manager."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 Sept. 29.

Cloonan, Patrick. "McKeesport radio station making switch to ‘AM News Talk 1360’."
McKeesport Daily News 2011 Sept. 19.

"Essential Public Media completes WDUQ sale."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Sept. 16.

Pitz, Marylynne. "WDUQ public radio station becomes WESA-FM."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 Sept. 15.

"Essential Public Media closes deal to buy 90.5 FM station."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review On-Line 2011 Sept. 15.

Falk, Joshua and Adrian McCoy. "Hello WESA-FM; goodbye WDUQ."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Sept. 2.

Falk, Joshua and Adrian McCoy. "New owners seek to change DUQ call letters."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 Sept. 1.

Falk, Joshua. "Local radio service for disabled faces an uncertain future."\
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Sept. 1.

"New Radio Program Highlights And Inspires Innovation." News Release.
NASA 2011 Sept. 1.
This radio program succeeds the NASA Langley Research Center Discovery Now radio program; for the web site of this new Innovation Now radio program, click here.

McCoy, Adrian. "Essential Public Radio/WDUQ-FM hires local host for morning."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Aug. 24.

McCoy, Adrian. "WYEP's Bumblebee Slim ending blues show."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Aug. 19.
Also--All-news KQV-AM (1410) is adding ABC Radio News newscasts to its top of the hour newscasts.

Cato, Jason. "FCC approves WDUQ radio station's sale."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 Aug. 6.

"Feds approve sale of WDUQ-FM."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 Aug. 5.

McCoy, Adrian. "Ex-WDUQ staffers join new local online jazz channel."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 July 3.

Cato, Jason. "Global broadcast to air in 1st hour on WDUQ-FM."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 June 30.

McCoy, Adrian. "The 'new' WDUQ touts new programming." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 June 29.

Cato, Jason. "Community leaders rail against WYEP move."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 June 29.

Kalson, Sally. "The end of WDUQ." Column.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 June 26.
I understand why jazz fans are mad, but I'm looking forward to more news.
This isn't the first time local audiences have felt deserted by broadcasters -- remember WAMO, WQEX, talk radio with Lynn Cullen and Doug Hoerth?
New call letters have yet to be assigned. It may take awhile to grow comfortable with a new handle, but if we can get used to Kaufmann's clock on the Macy's building, we can get used anything.

McCoy, Adrian. "WDUQ keeps two jazz hosts, nine others for new format."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 June 23.

McMullen, Paul. "11 ex-DUQ staffers to remain with new radio station
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review On-Line 2011 June 23.

Sciullo, Maria. "Taking a page from FDR."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 June 22.
Ravenstahl joins long line of politicians using 'fireside chats' to connect with listeners.

"20 WDUQ workers out of jobs June 30."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 June 17.

Pitz, Marylynne, and Adrian McCoy. "WDUQ sale means layoffs for some staffers."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 June 17.

McCoy, Adrian. "WDUQ staff to lose jobs when new owner takes over."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 June 16.

McCoy, Adrian. "Website acts as TiVo for the radio."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 June 12.

Sapienza, Jimmy. "Biography: Still larger than life, John Cigna always made for great story."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 June 10.
Regarding the late John Cigna, long-time radio personality on Pittsburgh news/talk stations KDKA-AM 1020 and WJAS-AM 1320.

Ashe, Brady. "Group calls for boycott of WDUQ, WYEP over jazz change."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 June 10.

Feldman, Jacqueline. "Fans hope to save jazz at new WDUQ."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 June 10.

Cato, Jason. "Cancellation drive aired over WDUQ."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review On-Line 2011 June 10.

Feldman, Jacqueline. "New WDUQ owners hire program manager."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 June 8.

Cato, Jason. "Essential Public Media hires public radio vet as content director."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review On-Line 2011 June 8.

Feldman, Jacqueline. "Complaint filed over proposed WDUQ changes."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 June 8.

Cato, Jason. "Jazz fans hoping to slow tempo of WDUQ sale."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 June 8.

Sciullo, Maria. "Obituary: James F. Sweenie / Longtime local radio personality." Obituary.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 June 8.

Schwartzel, Erich. "Editor named for new nonprofit news operation."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 June 7.
New non-profit news operation to work with new news and information, public radio format on WDUQ-FM.

"Group trying to keep jazz on WDUQ."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 June 7.

Cato, Jason. "Jazz Lives asks FCC to delay decision on WDUQ license transfer."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review On-Line 2011 June 7.

Cato, Jason. "Force behind WDUQ restructuring is on time."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 June 5.

Cato, Jason. "Longtime WDUQ supporters won't get money back."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 June 5.

Sciullo, Maria. "Just what is HD Radio?"
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 June 5.

Ashe, Brady. "WAMO returning to the air."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 June 4.
100.1 FM is a low-power station with only 99 watts streaming from an antenna atop KDKA tower that covers 75 to 80 percent of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, Mr. Martz said. MCG also bought 660 AM, whose signal reaches about 60 miles outside the city and stretches into parts of Ohio and West Virginia. The two frequencies will simulcast the same programming.

Ashe, Brady. "WAMO will be back on the air, starting Monday."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 June 3.
100.1 FM is a low-power station with only 99 watts streaming from an antenna atop KDKA tower that covers 75 to 80 percent of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, Mr. Martz said. MCG also bought 660 AM, whose signal reaches about 60 miles outside the city and stretches into parts of Ohio and West Virginia. The two frequencies will simulcast the same programming.

"Mayor Ravenstahl to talk to citizens via radio."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 June 3.

Feldman, Jacqueline. "Fayette radio host says shale criticism led to firing."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 May 30.

Pitz, Marylynne. "Foundations that backed WYEP group support commitment to news.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 May 29.

McCoy, Adrian. "Hits just keep on coming for WDUQ jazz fans."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 May 29.

Norman, Tony. "There's no longer enough of all that jazz." Column.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 May 27.
This week, the new owners of DUQ announced a format shift from jazz to news and information. Jazz will be limited to six hours on Saturdays, although it will be available 24/7 on the station's online stream and HD channel.

Reed Ward, Paula. "Obituary: John Cigna / Beloved longtime morning drive host on KDKA-AM." Obituary.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 May 21.

Hasch, Michael. "KDKA radio's Cigna dies at 75." Obituary.
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 May 21.

"Retired KDKA Radio Host John Cigna Has Died." Obituary.
KDKA-AM Radio 2011 May 20.

"FCC comment period for sale of WDUQ under way."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 May 18.

McCoy, Adrian. "Urban radio format returning to Pittsburgh."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 May 14.

Brown, Ryan. "Obituary: Fredrick McKenzie / Hosted rock 'n' roll show in WYEP's early years." Obituary.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 May 12.

Zlatos, Bill. "Heinz Endowments provides $1.5 million grant to purchase WDUQ."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 May 12.

"WDUQ may drop some jazz."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 May 6.

Zlatos, Bill. "Foundation grant could kick-start potential WDUQ purchase."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 May 4.

McCoy, Adrian. "WDUQ sale draws nearer."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 May 3.

McCoy, Adrian. "Purchase agreement signed for WDUQ."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 May 2.

"WDUQ sale stalls over final details."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 April 16.

* "Pittsburgh area gets new radio station."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2013 July 4.
Former Braddock station WLFP-AM, which was the flagship station for the Lifetime Radio Network, has now been transformed to a music format using the call-sign WZUM-AM, which had previously been used for decades by a popular-music Carnegie, Pennsylvania radio station, which lost its license a couple years ago for being off-the-air too long.
* Percha, Julie. "Year after it went dark, WZUM loses license."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 March 25.
Loss of license for sole radio station licensed to Carnegie, Pennsylvania.

McCoy, Adrian. "Hanley leaving WDUQ."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 March 25.

Sciullo, Maria. "Possible U.S. funding cut could affect WQED programming."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 March 25.
"Ms. Ford Williams also spoke about WQED's educational endeavor, "iQ Zoo." It's an interactive program that would allow kids or their parents to scan a barcode-like symbol at various stations at the Pittsburgh Zoo, which would call up information and features about the animals.
"I think we'll be doing some beta testing in the summer, to make sure kids 'get' it," she said. "Then we'll probably launch it later in the summer."
"Similar interactive programs have already launched involving the Children's Museum and the Carnegie library in Braddock."

Boren, Jeremy. "WQED calls on viewers to protest funding cuts."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 March 13.

Wills, Rick. "New legislation a boon to community radio."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 March 6.
"A new law, the Local Community Radio Act, reduces the amount of bandwidth allowed between existing FM stations. The newly available bandwidth would be used to create noncommercial radio stations operating at a low power, 100 watts, and have a transmission range of 10 to 15 miles."

McCoy, Adrian. "Fans lobby to keep jazz on WDUQ."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 March 6.

"New public radio station wants to work with online news source."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Feb. 26.

Young, Chris. "Mugged: The deal for WDUQ could leave employees and jazz fans feeling robbed."
Pittsburgh City Paper 2011 Feb. 23, 24.

Sostek, Anya. "WDUQ raises more than $200,000 in shortened pledge drive."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 Feb. 19.

Fuoco, Michael A. "Obituary: Doug Hoerth / Off-the-cuff 'Uncle Dougie' had 3-decade radio run in Pittsburgh." Obituary.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2011 Jan. 27.

Heyl, Eric. "WDUQ breaking with past, moving off campus." Column.
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2011 Jan. 19.

McCoy, Adrian. "Duquesne selling WDUQ to WYEP group."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2011 Jan.14.

Fuoco, Michael A. "WDUQ-FM raises more than $354,000 in fund drive."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2010 Oct. 23.

Falloon, Katie. "Radio pioneer set stage for cell phones."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2010 July 28.
University of Pittsburgh Engineering Professor Reginald A. Fessenden demonstrated first wireless voice broadcast on Christmas Eve of 1906.

Byham, William C. "WQED should buy WDUQ." Op-Ed Guest Column.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2010 March 24.
"For us news aficionados, the best of all possible worlds would be to have WDUQ become an all-news or mostly-news station."

Walsh, Glenn A. "The Historic Mission of Apollo 11
Man Walks on the Moon for the First Time
A Personal Remembrance From 40 Years Ago."

History of Buhl Planetarium Web Site 2009 July 20.
< http://buhlplanetarium2.tripod.com/bio/Apolloremembrance.htm >.
Remembrance of watching first manned Moon landing at Camp Shaw-Mi-Del-Eca. More information.

Levy, David H. "A 1967 Meteor Watch."
Sky and Telescope Magazine On-Line 2009 May 22.
Astronomy program at a boy’s summer camp near Honesdale, Pennsylvania.

Rosenthal, Phil. "WGN-AM drops 'Kathy & Judy'." Blog: "Tower Ticker."
Chicago Tribune On-Line 2009 May 22.

Rosenthal, Phil. "WNUA swings to Spanish format."
Chicago Tribune 2009 May 22.

Norman, Tony. "Ciao, WAMO -- we hardly knew you anymore." Column.
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2009 May 19.

Seate, Mike. "An urban station's loss may be positive." Column.
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2009 May 19.

"Tuesday takes:" Goodbye WAMO. Editorial.
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2009 May 19.

McCoy, Adrian. "Questions remain about future of WAMO radio after its sale."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2009 May 19.

Majors, Dan. "WAMO's format to change with sale."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2009 May 16.

Hasch, Michael. "WAMO being sold to religious broadcaster for $8.9 million."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2009 May 16.

McCoy, Adrian. "KDKA Radio regains top spot in Arbitron ratings."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2009 April 30.

McCoy, Adrian. "Obituary: Erik Selby / Radio programmer turned to farming in recent years."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2009 April 29.
Erik F. Selby was Program Director, since 1992, for KQV-AM 1410, Pittsburgh's All-News radio station; he also coordinated on-air responses, from the public, to editorials by KQV President and General Manager Robert W. Dickey.

McCoy, Adrian. "WYEP, WRCT plan anniversary specials."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2009 April 10.
WRCT started as low-power AM radio station at Carnegie Institute of Technology, before acquiring FM educational radio license.

Young, Chris. "Getting Static."
Pittsburgh City Paper 2009 April 9.
Regarding new legislation which could permit LPFM (Low Power FM Broadcasting).

McCoy, Adrian. "WMNY-AM shifts to business format."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2008 Sept. 3.
New Internet web site for WMNY-AM: < http://www.wmnyradio.com >.

"WMNY-AM to feature Pittsburgh Renaissance Radio."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2008 Sept. 3.
New Internet web site for WMNY-AM: < http://www.wmnyradio.com >.

Entertainment News Briefs: 8/23/08 "WMNY radio is all business."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2008 Aug. 23.
2008 Sept. 1 WPTT-AM News/Talk 1360 changes format to All-Business/Money, WMNY-AM.

"Money radio debuts Sept. 1."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2008 Aug. 21.
2008 Sept. 1 WPTT-AM News/Talk 1360 changes format to All-Business/Money, WMNY-AM.

Editorial: "Called off: A liberal talker exits the Pittsburgh airwaves."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2008 Aug. 20.
2008 Sept. 1 WPTT-AM News/Talk 1360 changes format to All-Business/Money, WMNY-AM.

Roth, Mark. "Format change will take Cullen off WPTT."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2008 Aug. 19: C1.
"WPTT-AM (1360) is switching to a new format and will be eliminating Ms. Cullen's show..."

"Radio talk host Lynn Cullen out at WPTT."
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette On-Line 2008 Aug. 18.
"WPTT-AM (1360) is switching to a new format and will be eliminating Ms. Cullen's show..."

McCoy, Adrian. Is KDKA radio for sale?"
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2008 Aug. 1.
KDKA-AM became the world's first commercially-licensed broadcast station in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, with the airing of the U.S. Presidential Election Returns of the Harding/Cox election, with election returns coming from the offices of the Pittsburgh Post.

Leonard, Kim. "CBS could sell KDKA-AM and three FM stations."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 2008 Aug. 1: A1.

2007 June 7 - BBC:
Wireless energy promise powers up
A clean-cut vision of a future freed from the rat's nest of cables
to power today's electronic gadgets has come one step closer to reality.

By Jonathan Fildes
First envisioned by Nikola Tesla, inventor of the Tesla Coil.

2007 May 11 - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette:
XM Radio to relive KQV's past
By Adrian McCoy

"NIA Launches National Radio Program on Aeronautics and Space Exploration." News Release.
The Researcher News, NASA Langley Research Center 2007 Jan. 17.
This radio program ended in 2011 and was succeeded by the NASA Langley Research Center Innovation Now radio program; see the original Discovery Now radio program web site here.

2007 March 9, 2:00 p.m. EST - KYW-AM 1060 NewsRadio:
KYW NewsRadio Moves to New Studios
from 5th and Market Streets (at Independence Mall) to 4th and Market Streets in Philadelphia.

2006 Sept. 19 - Institute of Museum and Library Services:
Libraries, Museums, and Public Broadcasters Collaborate to Improve Their Communities

Paglia, Ron. "By any name, WESA showed staying power."
Pittsburgh Tribune-Review" 2006 Aug. 27.

2006 January 5 - The Washington Post:
Z-104 Silenced; Post Radio To Debut in Station Shuffle By Paul Farhi
Major shuffle in Washington DC radio stations.

2005 Sept. 13 - Letter to KYW 1060 Newsradio (Philadelphia) Vice President and General Manager David Yadgaroff, from Glenn A. Walsh, congratulating KYW on 40 years of all-news radio broadcasting.

From the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Pittsburgh - 2005 February 17:
WPTT-AM plans switch to better frequency By Adrian McCoy Suburban Pittsburgh news/talk radio station WPTT-AM 1360 plans to swap frequencies with suburban Apollo, Pennsylvania's WAVL-AM 910 [currently daytime only; long-time Christian format]. WPTT would change city of license from McKeesport to Mt. Lebanon, increase daytime radiated power to 7,000 watts [currently 5,000 watts daytime, 1,000 watts at night], and build new transmitter in South Fayette Township.


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Ask an Expert from Friends of the Zeiss!

Other Internet Web Sites of Interest

History of Astronomer, Educator, and Optician John A. Brashear

History of The Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science, Pittsburgh -
Including the Oldest Operable, Major Planetarium Projector in the World !

History of The Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago -
America's First Major Planetarium !

History of Andrew Carnegie and Carnegie Libraries

History of The Duquesne Incline, Pittsburgh -
Historic Cable Car Railway Serving Commuters and Tourists since 1877 !

Other History Links

Quick-Reference Pages(Valuable Library References)


Disclaimer Statement: This Internet Web Site is not affiliated with the Andrew Carnegie Free Library,
Ninth Pennsylvania Reserves Civil War Reenactment Group, Henry Buhl, Jr. Planetarium and Observatory,
The Carnegie Science Center, The Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh/Carnegie Institute, or The Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh.

This Internet, World Wide Web Site administered by Glenn A. Walsh.
Unless otherwise indicated, all pages in this web site are Copyright 2001-2008, Glenn A. Walsh, All Rights Reserved.
The author thanks The Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh and the Three Rivers Free-Net for use of their digital scanner and
other computer equipment, and other assistance provided in the production of this web site.

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